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POS - first pass - Toki Pona Forums

POS - first pass

Language learning: How to speak Toki Pona, translation problems, advice, memory aids, tools and methods to learn Toki Pona and other languages faster
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janKipo
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POS - first pass

Postby janKipo » Mon Jul 26, 2010 1:56 pm

Here is the list, some things surely missing, something suspect of being misplaced (preceding *), somethings perhaps requiring a separate group (following *). More generalities about each group eagerly sought.

Group F
Principal use: functions: mark syntactic boundaries
No other uses
li beginning of verb phrase
e beginning of DO
la end of condition
o beginning of imperative (replaces subject and li)
beginning of optative (complete sentence)
end of vocative
en and, coordinate head nouns (only?) (subject and in PP and ‘pi’ phrases)
anu or, coordinate head nouns, VP, sentences, modifiers …
pi right grouping within modifier string
pu unknown function (?)
kin emphasize preceding word (indeed, moreover, …)


Group I
Principal use: interjections, vocal noises outside language proper, though perhaps meaningful.
As noun: the sound, the uttering of the sound
As verb i: to utter the sound, be the sound
As verb t: to utter the sound with the meaningful content DO
As modifier: given to uttering the sound, like the emotions (if any) of the sound
a general person exclamation, useful oral interp practice giving it various
shadings
a a more extended version of a, generally negative, but with strong stress on
second also “Eureka”
a a a laugh

mu general animal sound
derogatory description of human speech: nonsense, Duckspeak, etc.


Group M
Principal use: modals, take VP complement in verb position (others?), placing action under condition of some sort.
As noun: the condition/condition force
As verb i = modal
As verb t: variable – see separate entries
As modifiers: under force of
wile strong force driving toward: must, need, ought
kan no strong force against: can, may
kama come to (become, happen, not arrive at)
*open begin, open
*pini end, finish
*awen keep on, continue

Group P
Principal use: prepositions: take NP complement in all positions (?)
As noun: general class of the complement, details at specific entry
As verb i: to be or be in the process of fulfilling the prepositional placement (special
interps for missing complements)
As verb t: cause DO to be subject of verb i.
As modifier: given to verb i
tawa to, toward
tan from
lon at
sama same


Group A
Principal use: modifiers (adjectives, adverbs)
As nouns: the property, something with that property
As verb i: has the property
As verb t: cause DO to be subject of verb i
ala not
ale/ali all
ante different
ike bad
jaki vile
jelo yellow
kiwen hard
lete cold
lili little
laso blue
loje red
moli dead
mute much
nasa unusual
*ni this
pimeja dark
pona good
*seme what?
*sewi high
sin new
suli big
suwi sweet
*taso only
*tu two
walo white
*wan one


Group N
Principal use: nouns
As verb i: to be a specimen of (either literally or figuratively – caution about culture
here)
As verb t: to make DO subject of verb I; to apply specimen to DO (perhaps two groups)
As modifier: pertaining to (yes, that vague)
akesi reptile, amphibian, small ugly animal
*anpa bottom
*esun shop, market
ijo thing
ilo tool
*insa inside
jan person
*kala fish
kalama noise
*kasi plant
ko goo
kon air
kule color
*kulupu group
*lawa head
len cloth
linja string
lipu sheet
luka arm (foreleg)(problems with all but jan&soweli)
lupa hole
ma land
mama parent
mani wealth
meli female
mije male
*monsi back
mun moon
*namako seasoning (?)
nanpa number
nasin way
nena bump
nimi word
noka (hind) leg (see luka)
oko eye
*pakala harm
palisa rod
pan grain
pipi bug
poka side
poki container
*seli heat
selo skin
sijelo body
*sike circle
*sinpin front
*soweli beast
suno light
*supa surface
telo water
tenpo time
tomo building
uta mouth
*utala conflict
waso bird
wawa power


Group Vt
Principal use: verb t: take e + DO
As nouns: the activity, generic class of DO
As verbs i: assume suppressed generic DO
As modifier: given to the activity
alasa hunt
jo have
*kapisi cut(?)
kepeken use
kute* hear
lukin* see
moku eat
*musi play
olin love
pali make
pana emit
pilin* feel
sitelen draw
sona* know
toki* say
unpa f..k
weka distance

Group Vi
Principal use: verb i:
As nouns: the activity
As verb t: cause DO to do activity
As modifier: given to activity
lape sleep


Group X
Principal use: pronouns: nouns of a contextually determined meaning
As verb i: identification
As modifier: possessive
mi 1st, speaker and those for whom speaks, I, we, me, us
sina 2nd, audience, you
ona anaphoric 3rd same as some earlier noun reference
ni deictic, words or things pointed to in context.

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Re: POS - first pass

Postby janMato » Mon Jul 26, 2010 10:08 pm


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Re: POS - first pass

Postby janMato » Mon Jul 26, 2010 10:19 pm


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Re: POS - first pass

Postby janMato » Mon Jul 26, 2010 10:46 pm

Next I looked for signs of modals using \bli [a-z]+ [a-z]{2,7} e\b

Which is li followed by 2 words followed by e. I can't tell the difference between predicates and intransitive verbs, at least not with regex.

I manually removed the negative li X ala e, the adverbials li X [pona|ike|lili|mute|kin|taso|wawa] e

3 words are very clearly modals and productive (at least when used with vt verbs)
wile appears with 19 other words. li wile awen e, etc.
ken appears with 19 other words. li ken anpa e, etc.
kama appears with 8 other words. li kama jo e, etc.

If anything, we have more modals of extremely recent usage than of ancient usage.

I did find a bunch of these odd-balls. I'm not sure what to make of them.

li awen jo e - infrequent modal?
li lukin sama e - Ambivalence about using prepositional sama or accusative phrase?
li toki sama e - same as above
li lon kasi e - transitive lon to mean create? But with DO incorporated. (And I didn't do it!)
li lon lupa e - same as above.
li pana sona e - DO incorporation.
li sona weka e - DO incorporation with DO first.
li soweli tomo e - huh?
li kalama musi e - huh?
li toki sin e - re-talk, maybe a calque of respond.
li toki utala e - double verb

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Re: POS - first pass

Postby janKipo » Tue Jul 27, 2010 10:03 am

Thanks for the stats; I'll have to see what mods they require.
Two items are clearly (in afterthought mode) misplaced: lape should be in M as "asleep" and ni should also be in M as "this/that", otherwise the rules don't work well. So the whole class of intransitive verbs disappears into M in verb position (which seems basically right).
Apparently 'musi' is misplaced, but is it N or M? probably M, but that needs some looking at.
The next interesting question is about whether nouns need to be divided into those which mean "apply to" as vt and those which mean "change to" or some such thing.
Other suggestions?
Can you provide full text for the anomalous cases?

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Re: POS - first pass

Postby janKipo » Tue Jul 27, 2010 6:12 pm

So, 'musi' goes into N as "amusement" and N as transitive verbs mean "provide DO with " (the "change DO into" seems to have seeped in from A)
The first word (after 'la' or 'taso' or 'o' when there is a 'li' later) is also a pretty clear noun as is the first word after a preposition.
I get the sense that 'pilin' and maybe some others regularly take an adjectival complement, separate from the object.
The verbs with following stars ought to be the main ones to take 'e ni:' (maybe 'tan' and 'kama' too).
Other adjustments?
Have I missed any words?

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Re: POS - first pass

Postby janMato » Tue Jul 27, 2010 6:26 pm

I'm currently reading the Stuff of Thought (http://www.amazon.com/Stuff-Thought-Lan ... 0670063274)

I'm fascinated by Pinker's idea that verbs fall into micro-classes that appear to be sort-of universal. The gist of what he says is that verbs that are semantically similar take similar constructions. So the classic
mi olin e meli
and
meli li pona tawa mi

would be resolved by saying they are different microclasses, usually having something to do with causality, spatio-temporal relationships and the like. Interestingly if one verb uses a prepositional construction, then all the semantically similar verbs will also do so. If a verb takes an accusative, then semantically similar verbs take the accusative, too.

mi toki kepeken Inli and mi toki e Inli are another pair.

I'm not sure how well the same technique would work in tp, since there are so many fewer verbs to start with.

Anyhow, I intend to run some queries on what the occurrence rate of verb + kepeken, verb + poka, verb + lon as possible indicators that people think that a verb in tp takes a particular oblique.

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Re: POS - first pass

Postby janKipo » Tue Jul 27, 2010 6:30 pm

li awen jo e - infrequent modal?
Well, I think 'awen' should be a modal and here the whole thing just means "keep, continue having"
li lukin sama e - Ambivalence about using prepositional sama or accusative phrase?
li toki sama e - same as above
given the problems with 'sama' this seems a natural confusion to turn up.
li lon kasi e - transitive lon to mean create? But with DO incorporated. (And I didn't do it!)
No, just "put DO in the plant" or some such. 'kasi' as NP complement ot a P
li lon lupa e - same as above.
ditto --"in a hole"
li pana sona e - DO incorporation.
Yeah, common for "teach" with both subject and student (common not, I suppose, statistically)
li sona weka e - DO incorporation with DO first.
Even then I don't see what it should have meant. Context?
li soweli tomo e - huh
maybe shooting for "pet" the vt (back to the "turn into"sense after all)
li kalama musi e - huh?
"perform for"? "provide with amusing sound"
li toki sin e - re-talk, maybe a calque of respond.
not quite a real calque, but maybe something like that (we don't have a "return", after all)
li toki utala e - double verb
idiom for "argue", isn't it? (or is that 'utala toki'?)

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Re: POS - first pass

Postby janMato » Tue Jul 27, 2010 8:44 pm


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Re: POS - first pass

Postby janMato » Tue Jul 27, 2010 8:55 pm



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