jan Ne wrote:Mandarin Chinese is another example of a language that uses zero copula. And it is similar to toki pona in that it doesn’t mark whether a word is an adjective or verb etc. For example:
tā hěn hǎo
“He very good” (He is good)
Because the word is not marked as an adjective or a verb, most linguists analyze it as being a type of intransitive verb even though when used before a word it functions as an adjective.
janTepanNetaPelin wrote:Good observation.
jan_Lope wrote:jan Ne o, toki!
Many thanks for your comparison to Mandarin Chinese. But Toki Pona is different here. Sonja has defined the use of nouns adjectives as predicate. See page 20 of her book "Toki Pona - The Language of Good":
NOUN + li + ADJECTIVE
ijo li pona.
Something is good.
"pona" is here an adjective - more precisely a predicate adjective. So "pona" isn't a verb here. The predicate contains here as no verb, but an adjective. In the official Toki Pona book Sonja forms declarative sentences completely without verbs in the first four lessons.
Sonja Elen Kisa wrote:Interestingly, intransitive verbs fall under "modifier". For
example "lape" as a modifier means "relating to sleep" or "sleeping,
asleep". (jan lape = sleep-person, sleeping person)
Thus a basic idea like "ona li lape" (I sleep.) is really saying "She
Sonja Elen Kisa wrote:I
prefer to teach things in a simple, step by step approach that is
easy for everyone, whether you're a natural linguist or have no
experience with foreign languages whatsoever.
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