I remember the source of that 'tenpo ijo' line, where somehow 'ijo', which in certain circumstances would be translated as "something", got generalized to mean "some" in general. But, in fact, of course, the "some" is implicit in the bare word itself in contexts where a quantifier is called for, an 'a(n)' as needed for English (though not, e.g., Russian or Chinese).
The double DO is tricky (and not used much, if at all, but clearly in the grammar). The causative form of 'kama' takes a direct object and a VP complement. But the VP complement can be a transitive verb with its DO, so there are two DOs to two different verb and no very good way to sort them out. You have to chose between 'kama e jan pona pilin e ni' or the form given. (Now that I look at it, this version looks better than the one I gave earlier, but both are confusing -- a comma would help.) The trick here is to get the "persuade" in.